The Bhitarkanika mangroves comprise of a wide variety of habitats ranging from the tidal rivers and creek to riverine islands, coastal wetlands and inter tidal zones. But the major attraction remains the wildlife wealth. The Sanctuary comprising mangrove forests meandering rivers, innumerable criss-crossed tidal inundated creeks provide last refuge to the already endangered salt water crocodile (Crocodilus porosus). An area of 145 km² has been notified as Bhitarkanika National Park vide Notification No.19686/F in September 1998 by the government of Odisha. As many as 62 species of mangrove & its associates are found in Bhitarkanika Sanctuary. It has much significance with regard to ecological, geomorphological and biological background which includes mangrove forests, rivers, creeks, estuaries, back water, accreted land and mud flats. Mangroves are present on the estuary form by the river Devi in Jagatsinghpur district. Now Kingfishers are some of the most common birds you find in India. But the major attraction remains the wildlife wealth. The low lying mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika is subjected to regular tidal inundation twice daily. It hosts many mangrove species, and is the second largest mangrove ecosystem in India. It is located in Kendrapara district of Odisha, India on the deltas of Brahmani and Baitarani rivers, and is spread over 672 square kilometres of area. Havelock island is rich in mangroves just like the rest of the Andaman archipelago. The mangroves of Bhitarkanika National Park, in the Kendrapara district of Orissa, India (located at approximately 20°40'N, 87°00'E) make up about 700 of the 2500 sq. Bagagahana walk is great to look for wildlife. Bhitarkanika is one such location of rich, lush green vibrant eco-system lying in the estuarine region of Brahmani- Baitarani in the North-Eastern corner of Kendrapara district of Odisha. Great varieties of mangrove plants are found here which provide home to a variety of rare and endangered species. It was designated on 16 September 1998 and obtained the status of a Ramsar site on 19 August 2002. Reptiles present in the mangroves include saltwater crocodile, king cobra, Indian python and water monitor. The second largest mangrove forest in the world, the ‘Pichavaram Mangrove Forest’ is situated near Chidambaram in South India. It is also the home of medieval Hindu temples which can be found dotted throughout the sanctuary. Mangrove Pitta build nests on high branches of mangrove trees like Heritiera fomes as well as at low height close to the ground in bushy Phoenix paludosa . It used to be the hunting grounds of the erstwhile King of Kanika . It was one of the reasons to visit this national park. Between August 2004 and December 2006, 263 bird species were recorded, encompassing 147 resident and 99 migrant species. Every year close to 120,000 winter visitors from abroad for wintering and 80,000 resident birds from different parts of India arrive for nesting during the monsoon season.[12]. We have seen them everywhere. INTRODUCTION The mangrove forest in Bhitarkanika of Orissa coast is rich in biological diversity and it is a globally significant habitat for wildlife (1). The bird is found to be breeding in the months of May to August in Bhitarkanika National Park. Olive ridley turtles nest on Gahirmatha and other nearby beaches. There are 82 species of mangroves in India, including rare ones such as Aglaia cucullat a . It is the Entry Point to Bhitarkanika Sanctuary. Around 3,000 saltwater crocodiles were born during 2014 annual breeding and nesting season. Fauna species found in Bhitarkanika include: Salt water crocodiles, Olive Ridley Turtles, Kingfishers, bird varieties, python, monitor lizards, wild boar, hyenas, spotted deer, wild cat, jungle fowl. A study was carried out to assess the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in different salinity zones of Bhitarkanika mangroves of Orissa, India. Monitor lizards are amazing reptiles which can be seen in close quarters. Like many mangrove areas, the dense coastal forests provide vital protection for millions of people from devastating cyclones and tidal surges - of India's 58 recorded species of mangroves, 55 species are found in Bhitarkanika, a wider mangrove diversity than in the Sundarbans! Cerbera manghas is found only in Bhitarkanika and Dangmal forest blocks with a density of 43/ha in Bhitarkanika and 17/ha in Dangmal block. Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park is known as the “Mini-Amazon” of India. This is world’s most important nesting beach for Olive Ridley sea turtles. Seedlings of mangrove species were tested for AM colonization through root clearing and staining technique. Keywords: Streptomyces, mangroves, Bhitarkanika. Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary was declared vide notification No.6958/FF AH on 22 April 1975 over an area of 672 km². The Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary, which bounds the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary to the east, was created in September 1997, and encompasses Gahirmatha Beach and an adjacent portion of the Bay of Bengal. The national park and wildlife sanctuary is inundated by the rivers Brahmani, Baitarani, Dhamra, Pathsala. Flora is in the form of mangrove species. The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are home to 55 of India’s 58 known mangrove species. The boat ride from Khola to Dangmal or vice versa is highly recommended. Coming to Bhitarkanika mangroves, 81 species of macrofauna were found. These observations and estimations have been made by park officials over the course of ten years, from 2006 to 2016, however, regardless of the skill of the observers it cannot be compared to a verified tape measurement, especially considering the uncertainty inherent in visual size estimation in the wild. Bhitarkanika offers decent staying option and one can explore the creeks with boats looking for beautiful birds and massive salt water crocs. The core area of the sanctuary, with an area of 145 km2, was declared Bhitarkanika National Park in September 1998. Its 672 km² of mangrove forest and wetland provides home to well over 215 species of birds including winter migrants from central-Asia and Europe. The park is home to eight different species of kingfisher of which the brown-winged (mostly found in eastern India and southwestern Bangladesh), the black-capped and the collared (found along coastal areas) are the most sought after for birders. The mangroves found along the Odisha coast have signifcant conservation value due to their rich and unique biodiversity. 2005). The national park is home to Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), Indian python, king cobra, black ibis, darters and many other species of flora and fauna.[1]. It is a very good place to sight the giant Salt Water Crocodile, some growing to 23 feet in length, along with other reptiles like the Water Monitor Lizard and the King Cobra. The area is also been designated as second Ramsar site of the State after the Chilika Lake. [11], Avifauna includes 320 species including eight kingfisher species. [4] Due to the difficulty of trapping and measuring a large living crocodile, the accuracy of these dimensions is yet to be verified. The best time to travel through this creek is early morning or before sunset. Bhitarkanika Mangroves is India’s second largest forest,located in … At Bhitarkanika, we got to see 6 different types of Kingfisher birds in its dense mangroves dotting the creeks. Bhitarkanika Mangroves were designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 2002. The census breakup of other mammals is monkeys - 1,522, jackals - 305, common langur - 39, otter - 38, sambar deer - 17, jungle cat - 11, fox - 10, Mongoose - 7, wolf- 7, fishing cats - 3, hyena - 12, according to the survey data. The Bhitarkanika Mangroves were zamindari forests until 1952, when the government of Odisha abolished the zamindari system, and put the zamindari forests in the control of the state forest department. Gahirmatha Beach and Marine Sanctuary are to the east, separating swamp region and mangroves from the Bay of Bengal. Most of the birds are Asian open bill, egrets, black ibis, cormorants, and darters. Spotted deers and wild boars are abundant in the park and can be spotted at all the major locations. Bhitarkanika Mangroves is a mangrove wetland in Odisha, covering an area of 650 km (400 mi) in the Brahmani and Baitarani river deltas. The alley between the meandering creeks and rivers, houses the second largest viable mangrove eco-system of India. Bhitarkanika Mangroves is a mangrove wetland in Odisha, India, covering an area of 650 km (400 mi) in the Brahmani and Baitarani river deltas. Sixteen sites of Bhitarkanika mangrove areas were surveyed for the collection of roots and soil samples. 3 of these varieties we saw for the first time. The long green seeds of these plants floated away into the clear blue of open ocean. [citation needed], The park is home to the saltwater crocodile, Indian python, black ibis, wild boar, rhesus monkey, chital, darter, cobra, monitor lizard. [ 2 ] Around 3,000 saltwater crocodiles were born during 2014 annual and... 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